Mankhwala 7 Opambana Othandiza Khansa Yam'mapapo-Yavomerezedwa ndi FDA
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m'mapapo Cancer

    1. Kodi Khansa Yam'mapapo Ndi Chiyani?
    2. Kodi Mitundu Ya Khansa Yam'mapapo Ndi Chiyani?
    3. Kodi Zizindikiro Ndi Ziti Mukakhala Ndi Khansa Yam'mimba?
    4. Kodi Ndingadziwe Bwanji Ngati Ndili Ndi Khansa Yam'mimba?
    5. Kodi Khansa Yam'mapapo Ndi Chiyani?
    6. N 'chifukwa Chiyani Ndimakhala ndi Khansa ya M'mapapo?
    7. Khansa ya m'mapapo?

 

Kodi Khansa Yam'mapapo Ndi Chiyani?

Khansa imatha kuyamba kulikonse m'thupi. Khansa yomwe imayamba m'mapapu imatchedwa khansa yamapapo. Zimayamba pomwe maselo am'mapapo samakula bwino ndikuchulukitsa maselo abwinobwino. Izi zimapangitsa kuti zikhale zovuta kuti thupi lizigwira ntchito moyenera.

Maselo a khansa amatha kufalikira mbali zina za thupi. Maselo a khansa m'mapapo nthawi zina amatha kupita kuubongo ndikukula komweko. Maselo a khansa akamachita izi, amatchedwa metastasis. Kwa madokotala, maselo a khansa m'malo atsopanowa amawoneka ngati omwe amachokera m'mapapo.

Khansa nthawi zonse amatchulidwa komwe imayambira. Kotero pamene khansara yamapapo imafalikira ku ubongo (kapena malo ena aliwonse), imatchedwanso khansa ya m'mapapo. Sitchedwa khansa ya muubongo pokhapokha itayamba kuchokera kumaselo amubongo.

Odziwika: Mapapu ndi ziwalo ziwiri ngati siponji zomwe zimapezeka pachifuwa. Mapapu oyenera ali ndi magawo atatu otchedwa lobes. Mapapu akumanzere ali ndi mbali ziwiri. Mapapu amabweretsa mpweya mkati ndi kunja kwa thupi. Amalandira mpweya wa okosijeni ndi kutaya mpweya wa carbon dioxide.

Mphepo, kapena kuti trachea, imabweretsa mpweya m'mapapu. Imagawika m'machubu iwiri yotchedwa bronchi (chubu chimodzi chimatchedwa bronchus).

 

m'mapapo Cancer

Kodi Mitundu Ya Khansa Yam'mapapo Ndi Chiyani?

Khansa yomwe imayamba m'mapapu imatchedwa khansa yoyamba yamapapu. Khansa yomwe imafalikira m'mapapu kuchokera kumalo ena mthupi imadziwika kuti khansa yachiwiri yamapapu. Tsambali ndi lokhudza khansa yamapapo yoyamba.

Pali mitundu iwiri ikuluikulu ya khansa yamapapu yoyamba. Izi zimagawidwa ndi mtundu wa maselo momwe khansara imayamba kukula. Ali:

Khansa yamapapo yopanda khungu (Zamgululi) - mawonekedwe ofala kwambiri, owerengera milandu yoposa 87%. Itha kukhala imodzi mwamitundu itatu: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma kapena cell-cell carcinoma.

Khansa ya m'mapapo yaying'ono (SCLC) - mawonekedwe ocheperako omwe nthawi zambiri amafalikira mwachangu kuposa khansa ya m'mapapo yosakhala yaying'ono.

Mtundu wa khansa yamapapu yomwe mwasankha imatsimikizira kuti ndi mankhwala ati omwe angakulimbikitseni.

 

Kodi Zizindikiro Ndi Ziti Mukakhala Ndi Khansa Yam'mimba?

Anthu omwe ali ndi khansara yamapapo sangakhale ndi zizindikilo mpaka nthawi ina. Ngati zizindikiro zikuwonekera, zimatha kufanana ndi matenda opumira.

 

Zina mwazizindikiro zotengera Gwero Lodalirika ndi monga:

▪ amasintha mawu, monga mawu owuma

▪ amatenga matenda pachifuwa pafupipafupi, monga bronchitis kapena chibayo

▪ Kutupa kwa ma lymph nodes mkatikati mwa chifuwa

▪ kutsokomola komwe kumayamba kuchepa

▪ kupweteka pachifuwa

▪ kupuma movutikira komanso kupuma movutikira

 

M'kupita kwanthawi, munthu amathanso kukhala ndi zizindikilo zowopsa, monga:

▪ kupweteka pachifuwa

▪ kupweteka kwa mafupa ndi mafupa

▪ mutu

▪ kutsokomola magazi

▪ kuundana kwa magazi

▪ kukhala ndi njala yocheperapo thupi komanso kuonda

▪ kutopa

 

m'mapapo Cancer

 

Kodi Ndingadziwe Bwanji Ngati Ndili Ndi Khansa Yam'mimba?

Dokotala amakufunsani mafunso okhudzana ndi thanzi lanu komanso amakupimirani. Ngati zizindikilo zikuloza khansa ya m'mapapo, mayeso ochulukirapo adzachitika.

Nazi zina mwa mayeso omwe mungafunike:

Chifuwa cha X-ray: Izi nthawi zambiri zimakhala zoyesedwa koyamba kuyang'ana mabala m'mapapu anu. Ngati kusintha kukuwoneka, mufunika mayeso ena.

CT scan: Izi zimatchedwanso kuti CAT scan. Ndi mtundu wapadera wa x-ray womwe umatenga zithunzi mwatsatanetsatane zamkati mwanu. Zithunzi za CT zitha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito kuthandizira biopsy (onani pansipa).

PET kuyesa: Pamayesowa, mumapatsidwa mtundu wa shuga womwe umatha kuwoneka mkati mwa thupi lanu ndi kamera yapadera. Ngati pali khansa, shuga amawoneka ngati "malo otentha" komwe khansa imapezeka. Ikhoza kuthandizira pamene dokotala akuganiza kuti khansara yafalikira, koma sakudziwa kuti.

Bronchoscopy: Thubhu yopyapyala, yowunikira, yosinthasintha imadutsa pakamwa panu kupita ku bronchi. Dokotala amatha kuyang'ana kudzera mu chubu kuti apeze zotupa. Chubu chimatha kugwiritsidwanso ntchito pochita kafukufuku.

Mayeso a magazi: Kuyesedwa kwamagazi sikugwiritsidwa ntchito kuti mupeze khansa yam'mapapo, koma kumachitika kuti mumuuze dokotala zambiri zaumoyo wanu.

 

m'mapapo Cancer

 

Kodi Khansa Yam'mapapo Ndi Chiyani?

Ngati muli ndi khansa ya m'mapapo yosakhala yaying'ono, adokotala adzafuna kudziwa momwe yayandikira. Izi zimatchedwa staging. Mwina mudamvapo anthu ena akunena kuti khansa yawo inali "gawo lachiwiri" kapena "gawo lachitatu" Dokotala wanu adzafuna kudziwa gawo la khansa yanu kuti akuthandizeni kusankha mtundu wa mankhwala omwe angakuthandizeni.

Gawoli likufotokozera kufalikira kwa khansa kudzera m'mapapo. Ikufotokozanso ngati khansara yafalikira ku ziwalo zapafupi kapena ziwalo zakutali.

Gawo lanu litha kukhala gawo 1, 2, 3, kapena 4. Kuchepetsa chiwerengerocho, khansa imafalikira. Chiwerengero chapamwamba, monga gawo 4, chimatanthawuza khansa yayikulu kwambiri yomwe yafalikira kunja kwa mapapu anu. Onetsetsani kuti mufunse adotolo za momwe khansa yanu iliri komanso tanthauzo lake.

 

(1) Magawo a Khansa Yapakhungu Yochepa

Ogwira ntchito zaumoyo amagwiritsa ntchito kukula kwa chotupa ndikufalikira pofotokoza magawo a khansa ya m'mapapo yaing'ono, motere:

Zamatsenga, kapena zobisika: Khansara siziwoneka pazithunzi, koma ma cell a khansa amatha kuwonekera phlegm kapena mamina.

Gawo 0: Pali maselo osazolowereka m'magulu apamwamba am'mayendedwe ampweya.

Gawo 1: Chotupa chimapezeka m'mapapo, koma chimakhala masentimita 4 (cm) kapena pansi ndipo sichinafalikire mbali zina za thupi.

 Gawo 2: Chotupacho chili ndi masentimita 7 kapena pansi ndipo chikhoza kufalikira kumatenda oyandikira ndi ma lymph node.

Gawo 3: Khansara yafalikira ku ma lymph node ndikufika kumadera ena am'mapapo ndi madera ozungulira.

Gawo 4: Khansara yafalikira kumadera akutali, monga mafupa kapena ubongo.

 

(2) Miyendo Of Smalo ogulitsa CEll Lopanda Cancer

Khansa ya m'mapapo yaying'ono imakhala ndimagulu ake. Magawo amadziwika kuti ndi ochepa komanso ochulukirapo, ndipo amatanthauza ngati khansara yafalikira mkati kapena kunja kwa mapapo.

Pang'ono pang'ono, khansara imakhudza mbali imodzi yokha ya chifuwa, ngakhale kuti imatha kupezeka m'matenda ena oyandikana nawo. Pafupifupi gawo limodzi mwa atatu mwa anthu amtunduwu amadziwa kuti ali ndi khansa ikadali yochepa. Ogwira ntchito zachipatala amatha kuchiza mankhwalawa ngati dera limodzi.

Pakatikati, khansara yafalikira kupitirira mbali imodzi ya chifuwa. Zitha kukhudza mapapu ena kapena ziwalo zina za thupi. Pafupifupi magawo awiri mwa atatu a anthu omwe ali ndi khansa ya m'mapapo yaing'ono amapeza kuti ali nayo pomwe ili kale.

 

N 'chifukwa Chiyani Ndimakhala ndi Khansa ya M'mapapo? 

Khansa imayamba pambuyo poti majini awonongeka ku DNA komanso kusintha kwa epigenetic. Zosinthazi zimakhudza magwiridwe antchito amaselo, kuphatikiza kuchuluka kwa ma cell, kufa kwamaselo (apoptosis), ndikukonzanso kwa DNA. Pamene kuwonongeka kumachulukirachulukira, chiopsezo cha khansa chikuwonjezeka.

Zifukwa izi zimapangitsa khansa ya m'mapapo mwamphamvu:

Chifukwa Chiyani Ndimakhala Ndi Khansa Yam'mapapo?

 

 

▲ Kusuta

Sikuti onse osuta fodya amakhala ndi khansa yamapapo, ndipo sikuti aliyense amene ali ndi khansa yamapapo amasuta. Koma palibe kukayika kuti kusuta ndiye chiopsezo chachikulu, kuchititsa khansa 9 mwa 10 yomwe ili ndi khansa ya m'mapapo. Kuphatikiza pa ndudu, kusuta ndudu ndi chitoliro kumalumikizananso ndi khansa yamapapo. Mukamasuta kwambiri komanso mukasuta fodya, mwayi wanu wokula khansa yam'mapapo umakulanso.

Simuyenera kukhala wosuta kuti musakhudzidwe. Kupuma utsi wa anthu ena kumaonjezera ngozi ya khansa ya m'mapapo. Malingana ndi Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC) Trusted Source, utsi wa fodya ndi amene amachititsa anthu pafupifupi 7,300 kufa khansa yamapapo chaka chilichonse ku United States.

Fodya amakhala ndi mankhwala opitilira 7,000, ndipo osachepera 70 amadziwika kuti amayambitsa khansa.

Mukapuma utsi wa fodya, mankhwalawa amaperekedwa mwachindunji m'mapapu anu, pomwe amayamba kuwononga nthawi yomweyo.

Mapapu amatha kukonza kuwonongeka koyambirira, koma kupitiriza kwa minofu yamapapu kumakhala kovuta kuyendetsa. Ndipamene maselo owonongeka amatha kusintha ndikukula. Mankhwala omwe mumatulutsa amalowanso m'magazi anu ndipo amatengedwa mthupi lanu lonse, ndikuwonjezera chiopsezo cha mitundu ina ya khansa. Osuta fodya akadali pachiwopsezo chokhala ndi khansa yamapapo, koma kusiya kungachepetse ngoziyo. Pasanathe zaka 10 kusiya, chiopsezo chofa ndi khansa yam'mapapo chimatsika ndi theka.

 

Radon mpweya

Radoni ndi mpweya wopanda utoto komanso wopanda fungo womwe umachitika chifukwa cha kuwonongeka kwa radioadium, yomwe imapangitsanso uranium, yomwe imapezeka mu Earth. Kuwonongeka kwa ma radiation kumapangitsa kuti ma radiation asinthe, ndikupangitsa kusintha komwe nthawi zina kumakhala khansa. Radon ndiye chifukwa chachiwiri chofala kwambiri cha khansa yamapapo ku US, yomwe imapha anthu pafupifupi 21,000 chaka chilichonse. Chiwopsezo chikuwonjezeka 8-16% pa 100 Bq / m³ iliyonse pakukula kwa radon. nthaka komanso miyala. Pafupifupi nyumba imodzi mwamakilomita 15 ku US ili ndi milingo ya radon pamwamba paupangiri wololeza wa zojambula 4 pa lita (pCi / l) (148 Bq / m³).

 

asibesitosi

Asibesito amatha kuyambitsa matenda osiyanasiyana am'mapapo monga khansa yamapapo. Kusuta fodya ndi asibesitosi onse ali ndi vuto logwirizana pakukula kwa khansa yam'mapapo. Mwa osuta omwe amagwira ntchito ndi asibesitosi, chiopsezo cha khansa yamapapo chikuwonjezeka nthawi 45 poyerekeza ndi anthu ambiri. Asbestos amathanso kuyambitsa khansa ya pleura, yotchedwa mesothelioma - zomwe ndizosiyana ndi khansa yamapapo.

 

Kuwonongeka kwa mpweya

Zowononga mpweya zakunja, makamaka mankhwala omwe amatulutsidwa chifukwa cha kuyaka mafuta, zimawonjezera chiopsezo cha khansa yam'mapapo.Fine particulates (PM2.5) ndi sulphate aerosols, omwe amatha kutulutsidwa mu utsi wa utsi wamagalimoto, amakhala ndi chiopsezo chowonjezeka pang'ono. Kwa nitrogen dioxide, kuwonjezeka kowonjezeka kwa magawo 10 pa biliyoni kumawonjezera chiopsezo cha khansa ya m'mapapo ndi 14%.

Umboni woyeserera umathandizira chiopsezo chowonjezeka cha khansa yamapapo kuchokera kuwonongeka kwa mpweya mnyumba poyerekeza ndi kuwotcha nkhuni, makala, ndowe, kapena zotsalira za mbewu zophika ndi kutentha. Zowopsa zakupha za biomass zimadziwika kapena zikukayikiridwa kuti zimayambitsa khansa.

 

Genetics

Pafupifupi 8% ya khansa yamapapo imayambitsidwa ndi zinthu zobadwa nazo. Mwa abale a anthu omwe amapezeka kuti ali ndi khansa yam'mapapo, chiopsezo chimachulukitsidwa, mwina chifukwa cha kuphatikiza kwa majini. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) ya majini omwe amalembetsa nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) - CHRNA5, CHRNA6, ndi CHRNB15 - ndi ena mwa omwe ali ndi chiopsezo chowonjezeka cha khansa ya m'mapapo, komanso RGS5 - jini kuwongolera kuwonetsa kwa G-protein.

 

Other zifukwa

Zinthu zina zambiri, ntchito, komanso kuwonekera pazachilengedwe zalumikizidwa ndi khansa yamapapo. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) yati pali "umboni wokwanira" wosonyeza kuti zotsatirazi zimayambitsa khansa m'mapapu:

Zitsulo zina (zotayidwa, zotchedwa cadmium ndi cadmium, mankhwala a chromium (VI), mankhwala a beryllium ndi beryllium, zitsulo zachitsulo ndi zitsulo, mankhwala a nickel, arsenic ndi inorganic arsenic compounds, ndi migodi yapansi panthaka ya hematite)

Zina mwazinthu zoyaka (kuyaka kosakwanira, malasha (zotulutsa m'nyumba zoyaka malasha), kupangira malasha, phula la malasha, kupanga coke, mwaye, ndi utsi wamafuta a dizilo)

Kutulutsa ma radiation (X-ray ndi gamma).

Mpweya wina wa poizoni (methyl ether (grade grade), ndi bis- (chloromethyl) ether, sulfure mpiru, MOPP (vincristine-prednisone-nitrogen mustard-procarbazine mix) ndi utsi wojambula)

Kupanga mphira ndi fumbi la silika.

Pali kuwonjezeka pang'ono pangozi ya khansa ya m'mapapo mwa anthu omwe akukhudzidwa ndi systemic sclerosis.

 

Khansa ya m'mapapo? 

Pali njira zambiri zochizira khansa yamapapu. Kuchita maopaleshoni ndi radiation kumagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza khansa yokha. Sizimakhudza thupi lonse. Mankhwala a Chemo, chithandizo chamankhwala, ndi immunotherapy zimadutsa mthupi lonse. Amatha kufikira ma cell a khansa pafupifupi kulikonse mthupi.

 

Chithandizo cha khansa yam'mapapo chingaphatikizepo opaleshoni, radiation, chemotherapy, chithandizo chamankhwala, ndi immunotherapy. Ndondomeko yamankhwala yomwe ingakuthandizeni kwambiri idzadalira:

▪ Gawo la khansa

▪ Mwayi woti mtundu wa chithandizo ungathandize

▪ Msinkhu wanu

▪ Mavuto ena azaumoyo omwe muli nawo

▪ Maganizo anu pankhani ya mankhwalawa komanso mavuto amene amabwera chifukwa cha mankhwalawo.

 

m'mapapo Cancer

 

Odwala ambiri omwe ali ndi khansa yamapapo amasankha mankhwala osokoneza bongo koyambirira, chifukwa ndiyo njira yowongoka kwambiri komanso yosavuta yothetsera kufalikira kwa maselo a khansa. Mankhwalawa amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza khansa yam'mapapo (SCLC ndi NSCLC):

 

Kufotokozera: Z AZD-3759 (CAS: 1626387-80-1)

AZD-3759 ndi choletsa chotupa cha epidermal grow factor receptor (EGFR), chomwe chimakhala ndi ntchito yoteteza thupi. AZD-3759 imamangiriza ndikulepheretsa zochitika za EGFR komanso mitundu ina ya EGFR yosinthira. Izi zimalepheretsa kuwonetsa pakati pa EGFR, ndipo zitha kubweretsa kulowetsedwa kwa cell cell ndikuletsa kukula kwa chotupa m'maselo a EGFR-overexpressing.

Mankhwala a khansa ya m'mapapo AZD 3759

 

❷ Gefitinib (CAS: 184475-35-2)

Gefitinib ndi tyrosine kinase inhibitor yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati njira yoyamba yothandizira anthu omwe si ang'onoang'ono cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) yomwe imakwaniritsa njira zina zosinthira majini.

Gefitinib ndi choletsa cha epidermal grow factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase chomwe chimamangiriza ku adenosine triphosphate (ATP) -binding site ya enzyme. EGFR nthawi zambiri imawonetsedwa kuti imakhudzidwa kwambiri ndi maselo ena a carcinoma, monga maselo am'mapapo ndi khansa ya m'mawere. Kufotokozera mopitirira muyeso kumayambitsa kukonzanso kwa ma anti-apoptotic Ras sign transcction, zomwe zimapangitsa kupulumuka kwamaselo a khansa komanso kuchuluka kwama cell kosalamulirika. Gefitinib ndiye woyamba kusankha inhibitor wa EGFR tyrosine kinase yemwe amatchedwanso Her1 kapena ErbB-1. Poletsa EGFR tyrosine kinase, malo otsika otsika nawonso amaletsedweratu, zomwe zimapangitsa kufalikira kwa maselo owopsa.

 

AZD-9291(CAS: 1421373-65-0)

AZD-9291 imatchedwanso Osimertinib yomwe ndi tyrosine kinase inhibitor yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza mitundu ina ya cell -oma yaing'ono yamapapu ya carcinoma.

AZD-9291 ndi epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) yomwe imagwirizana ndi mitundu ina ya EGFR (T790M, L858R, ndi exon 19 kufufutidwa) yomwe imapezeka m'matumba a khansa ya m'mapapo osakhala ang'onoang'ono (NSCLC) kutsatira chithandizo choyamba -mizere EGFR-TKIs. Monga m'badwo wachitatu wa tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AZD-9291 ndichindunji kwa osunga zipata T790M kusintha komwe kumawonjezera ntchito zomangiriza za ATP ku EGFR ndipo kumabweretsa chiyembekezo chazovuta zamatenda akuchedwa. Kuphatikiza apo, AZD-9291 yawonetsedwa kuti ipulumutsa EGFR yamtchire panthawi yamankhwala, potero amachepetsa kumangirira komanso kuchepetsa poyizoni.

Mankhwala a khansa ya m'mapapo AZD 9291

 

Acom Dacomitinib (CAS: 1110813-31-4)

Dacomitinib ndi mankhwala omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochizira khansa yaying'ono yamapapo yam'mapapo ndi EGFR exon 19 kufufutidwa kwa exon 21 L858R m'malo mwake. Dacomitinib, yopangidwa ngati (2E) -N-16-4- (piperidin-1-yl) koma-2-enamide, ndi gawo losankhidwa kwambiri la quinazalone m'chigawo chachiwiri cha tyrosine kinase inhibitors chomwe chimadziwika ndikumangika kosasinthika madera a ATP a madera a epidermal kukula factor receptor banja kinase. Dacomitinib ndi mankhwala ochizira non-cell-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Ndi choletsa chosankha ndi chosasinthika cha EGFR.

 

Ceritinib (CAS: 1032900-25-6)

Ceritinib amatchedwanso LDK378 yomwe ndi antineoplastic kinase inhibitor yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito pochizira khansa ya m'mapapo (NSCLC) yaaplastic lymphastin (NMSLC) mwa odwala omwe ali ndi vuto lokwanira kapena osagwirizana ndi crizotinib.

Ceritinib imagwiritsidwa ntchito pochizira akuluakulu omwe ali ndi kansa ya m'mapapo ya lymphoma kinase (ALK) - yomwe imayambitsa khansa yamapapo yam'mapapo (NSCLC) kutsatira kulephera (yachiwiri kukana kapena kusagwirizana) kwa mankhwala a crizotinib. Pafupifupi 4% ya odwala omwe ali ndi NSCLC ali ndi chromosomal rearrangement yomwe imapanga jini losakanikirana pakati pa EML4 (echinoderm microtubule-protein-like 4) ndi ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), zomwe zimabweretsa zochitika za kinase zomwe zimathandizira khansa ya khansa ndipo zimawoneka ngati zikuyendetsa phenotype yoyipa. Ceritinib imagwiritsa ntchito mphamvu yake yoletsa poletsa autophosphorylation ya ALK, phosphorylation yolumikizidwa ndi ALK ya mapuloteni otsika otsika STAT3, komanso kuchuluka kwa maselo a khansa omwe amadalira ALK. Kutsatira chithandizo ndi crizotinib (m'badwo woyamba wa ALK inhibitor), zotupa zambiri zimayamba kusamva mankhwala chifukwa cha kusintha kwa zotsalira zazikulu za "mlonda wa pachipata" wa enzyme. Izi zidapangitsa kuti pakhale njira zatsopano za m'badwo wachiwiri wa ALK zoletsa monga ceritinib kuthana ndi kukana kwa crizotinib. A FDA adavomereza ceritinib mu Epulo 2014 chifukwa chakuyankha modabwitsa (56%) kulowera alirezazotupa zosagwira ndipo wazisankha ndi mankhwala amasiye.

 

Afatinib (CAS: 439081-18-2)

Afatinib ndi mankhwala opatsirana pogonana omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza khansa yapakhungu yam'mapapo (NSCLC) yotsogola kapena yopanda mphamvu kapena yosagwirizana ndi chemotherapy yochokera ku platinamu.

Afatinib ndi 4-anilinoquinazoline tyrosine kinase inhibitor mwa mawonekedwe amchere wamchere womwe umapezeka ngati dzina la Boehringer Ingelheim la Gilotrif. Pogwiritsira ntchito pakamwa, mapiritsi a afatinib ndi mankhwala oyamba (oyamba) kwa odwala omwe ali ndi khansa ya m'mapapo yaing'ono yam'mapapo (NSCLC) yomwe imakhala ndi kusintha kwa wamba kwa epidermal grow factor receptor (EGFR) monga momwe zimadziwika ndi mayeso ovomerezeka a FDA 4. Gilotrif ( afatinib) ndiye mankhwala oyamba ovomerezeka a FDA ochokera ku Boehringer Ingelheim.

 

Lot Erlotinib (CAS: 183321-74-6)

Erlotinib ndi EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza khansa yaying'ono yamapapo yam'mapapo kapena khansa yapakatikati ya kapamba. Ali m'gulu la mankhwala omwe amadziwika kuti tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Zimagwira ntchito poletsa ntchito ya puloteni yotchedwa epidermal grow factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR imapezeka pamwamba pa maselo ambiri a khansa komanso maselo abwinobwino. Imagwira ngati "tinyanga," yolandira zikwangwani kuchokera kuma cell ena ndi chilengedwe chomwe chimauza khungu kuti likule ndikugawana. EGFR imagwira gawo lofunikira pakukula ndikukula msanga komanso nthawi yaubwana ndipo imathandizira kukhalabe m'malo mwa maselo akale ndi owonongeka mwa akulu. Komabe, maselo ambiri a khansa ali ndi EGFR yambiri pamtunda, kapena EGFR yawo yasinthidwa ndi kusintha kwa DNA yomwe imanyamula mtundu wa protein. Zotsatira zake ndikuti zikwangwani zochokera ku EGFR ndizolimba kwambiri, zomwe zimapangitsa kukula kwamaselo ndi magawano, chizindikiro cha khansa.

Mankhwala onsewa amatha kuperekedwa ndi aasraw mu mawonekedwe oyera a ufa, omwe amangofufuza. Takulandilani kulumikizana ndi aasraw ngati mukufuna kudziwa zambiri zamomwe mungagule mankhwala a khansa ya m'mapapo ya aganist!

 

Reference

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[8] Pezani nkhaniyi pa intaneti Carr LL, Jett JR (2015). "Chaputala 114: Chithandizo cha khansa ya m'mapapo yosakhala yaying'ono: chemotherapy". Ku Grippi MA, Elias JA, Fishman JA, Kotloff RM, Pack AI, Senior RM (eds.). Matenda a m'mapapo a Fishman ndi Matenda (5th ed.). Phiri la McGraw. p. 1752. ISBN 978-0-07-179672-9.

[9] Murray N, Turrisi AT (Marichi 2006). "Kuwunikanso mankhwala oyamba a khansa yaying'ono yamapapo" Zolemba za Thoracic Oncology. 1 (3): 270–8. onetsani: 10.1016 / s1556-0864 (15) 31579-3. PMID 17409868. (Adasankhidwa)

[10] Ikushima H (February 2010). "Thandizo la radiation: zaluso ndi tsogolo". Journal of Medical Investigation. 57 (1-2): 1-11. onetsani: 10.2152 / jmi.57.1. PMID 20299738. (Adasankhidwa)

[11] Arriagada R, Goldstraw P, Le Chevalier T (2002). Oxford Textbook of Oncology (wachiwiri ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 2094-978-0-19-262926.

[12] Goldstein SD, Yang SC (Okutobala 2011). "Udindo wa opaleshoni mu khansa yaying'ono yamapapo yamapapo". Zipatala za Oncology za Opaleshoni ku North America. 20 (4): 769-77.

[13] Ziwerengero za kupulumuka kwa khansa ya m'mapapo Kafukufuku wa Khansa UK. 15 Meyi 2015. Zasungidwa kuyambira pachiyambi pa 7 October 2014.

[14] Prince-Paul M (Epulo 2009). "Pamene hospice ndiyo njira yabwino kwambiri: mwayi wofotokozera zolinga". Chidziwitso. 23 (4 Suppl Namwino Ed): 13-7. PMID 19856592.

[15] Stewart BW, Wild CP (2014). Lipoti la khansa yapadziko lonse 2014. Lyon: Press IARC. masamba 350-352. ISBN 978-92-832-0429-9.

[16] National Cancer Institute; ZOONA zamapepala: Lung ndi Bronchus. Epidemiology Yoyang'anira ndi Zotsatira Zotsiriza. 2010 [1] Yasungidwa pa 6 Julayi 2014 ku Wayback Machine.

[17] Heavey S, O'Byrne KJ, Gately K (Epulo 2014). "Njira zothandizira kulumikizana ndi PI3K / AKT / mTOR njira ku NSCLC". Ndemanga za Chithandizo cha Khansa. 40 (3): 445-56.

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