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Kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo

1.Armodafinil
2.Modafinil
3.Noopept
4.J147
5. Phenylpiracetam
6.Sunifiram
7. Bromantane


Nootropics Dzina la Smart-Drugs kuchokera ku Silicon Valley. Amalonjeza kugwira ntchito zamaganizo ndipo akufalikira mofulumira kuchokera ku US Coast Coast. Akatswiri amachenjeza za kuopsa kwa chipembedzo chatsopano.

Noootropics, yomwe imatchedwanso mankhwala osokoneza bongo, kukumbukira kukumbukira, ndi zidziwitso zamaganizo, ndi mankhwala omwe amakweza malingaliro ena aumunthu (ntchito ndi luso la ubongo) monga kuzindikira, kukumbukira, nzeru, chilengedwe, zolinga, chidwi ndi kusamalitsa. Nthawi zambiri mawonekedwe a nootropics sadziwika. Zimakhulupirira kuti nootropics imagwira ntchito pokonzetsa kupezeka kwa zinthu zam'thupi mu ubongo (neurotransmitters, michere ndi mahomoni), mwa kusintha kapena kuyambitsa ubongo wa m'mitsempha, kapena polimbikitsa neuronal kukula (neurogenesis).


Mbiri Yopanga Mankhwala Osokoneza Bongo

Mawu akuti "nootropic" adaikidwa mu 1972 ndi Korneliu E. Giurgea (1923-1995) wa Chi Romanian. Giurgea ankaphatikizidwa mu kaphatikizidwe ka mankhwalawa piracetam mu 1964, yomwe tsopano ndi imodzi mwa zotchuka kwambiri za nootropics. Anasankha mawuwo poyerekezera ndi mawu akuti psychotropic.

Giurgea adakhala Pulofesa wa Neurophysiology ku Faculty of Medicine ku Bucharest ndi ku Belgium ku 1963 anakhala Mutu wa Neuropharmacology ku UCB.

Malingana ndi Giurgea, nootropics ndi mankhwala omwe amagawana zizindikiro zofunika za piracetam, ndizo:

1. Kuwongolera mwachindunji ntchito zogwirizanitsa za ubongo, zomwe zimapereka zotsatira zabwino mwachangu m'malingaliro.
2. Kukonzekera kumeneku kumayenera kusokoneza telencephalon ndipo sikuwonekera m'magulu ena a ubongo.
3. Kotero kuti azigwiritsa ntchito kubwezeretsa ku mavuto a ntchito zapamwamba za ubongo.

Dothi lililonse la nootropic malinga ndi momwe Giurgea angayankhire lingathandize kwambiri kuzindikira. Chinthu chokhala ndi chitsimikizo chabwino ndi nootropic yokha mwachindunji cha tanthawuzo ngati imakhalanso ndi ubwino wa ubongo ndipo ilibe mwauchidakwa. Zosangalatsa za ubongo monga amphetamine sizochita zotchedwa nootropic muzowona, ngakhale kuti zingabweretse chidziwitso, monga momwe zingakhudzidwe ndi zotsatira zoopsa.


Zochita

Zofufuza pa zotsatira za nootropics zawonetsa zotsatira zosiyanasiyana za mankhwala; koma mtundu umodzi wokha umene umagwira ntchito m'kalasi yonse ya mankhwala siukufala. Zonsezi zimakhudza zamoyo zomwe zimapangitsa kuti thupi likhale lopweteka: Kuwonjezeka kwa choline kumawonjezereka kupanga ndi kuchuluka kwa acetylcholine, yomwe imachititsa muscarinic ndi nicotinic receptors. Piracetamu imapanganso kuchuluka kwa acetylcholine receptors ya frontal cortex ndi 30% -40%.

The 7 Best Nootropics (Smart drugs) mumsika wa Noopept

Kuperekera kwa mphamvu monga adenosine triphosphate (ATP) n'kofunika kwambiri kuti munthu apulumuke. Maselo a ubongo ayenera kupeza ATP yawo kuchokera ku shuga ndi mpweya ndipo sangathe kutenga ATP kuchokera ku maselo ena. Piracetamu amachititsa ntchito ya adenylate kinase enzyme, yomwe imatembenuza adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ku ATP ndi adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Izi zimachepetsa kugwedeza kwa ATP mu ubongo mu hypoxia ndikupititsa patsogolo kuchira kwa hypoxia, komanso chifukwa cha kuyambitsa glycolysis.

Njira ina yothandizira ndi kuchepetsa pa mapepala a aggregation ndi kusintha kwa ma membrane fluidity, mwinamwake ndi kuphatikiza phospholipids mu nembanemba.

Zotsatira zowonongeka za zoterozo nootropics monga:

• Kukwiya koopsa kapena mantha
• Kupuma ndi kukwiya kumayambira ku chiwawa
• kunjenjemera kwa thupi
• Kusokonezeka maganizo ndi nkhawa
• Kusagona kapena kugona
• Nsomba ndi kusanza
• thukuta
• kupweteka m'mimba
• Kutsegula m'mimba kapena kupindula
Nthawi zina palinso chizungulire kapena zofooka, kuchepetsa kuthamanga kwa magazi kapena kuwonjezeka ndi kuonjezera libido.

Zinthu ndi zizindikiro zotsatirazi zimaperekedwa ku nootropics:

• Kugwiritsa ntchito ntchito ya ubongo ndi zotsatira zolimbikitsa m'malingaliro
• Mthendayi mu ubongo, mbali zina za ubongo zingasokonezeke
• Kupititsa patsogolo maphunziro
• Zotsatira pamtima
• Kulimbikitsa makhalidwe ndi maphunziro
• Kuonjezera mphamvu za njira zothandizira kudwala khungu la cerebral cortex
• Musati mulepheretse zotsatira za mankhwala osokoneza bongo
• Zotsatira zochepa, zochepa poizoni


Msika waufulu nootropics

M'zaka zaposachedwapa, msika wa nootropics wakula. Zinthu zambiri zimangokhalira kuvomereza kanthawi kapena zotsatira zake sizinatsimikizidwe. Nthaŵi zina kufufuza kwa nthawi yaitali pa zotsatira zasautso kumasowa. Pali kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa mankhwala ndi zinthu zina. Mwakutanthauzira, chinthu chilichonse chimene chimakhudza ubongo ndi katswiri wa nootropic ngati ali ndi ubongo wa thupi komanso wosakhala ndi poizoni. M'lingaliro limeneli, zinthu monga amphetamine siziri pakati pa nootropics monga poizoni.

Chizoloŵezi chofala cha nootropics ndi chakuti onse amathandizira ndi kulimbikitsa opaleshoni ya ubongo mu ubongo ndi maulendo awo. "Mphamvu za ubongo" ndi adenosine triphosphate (abk ATP), yomwe imapanga maselo a ubongo kuchokera ku shuga ndi mpweya. Mwachitsanzo, piracetam imachepetsa komanso imapangitsa kuti ATP ipangidwe ngati kuti alibe oxygen. Zimapangitsanso kuti magazi ayambe kupita ku ubongo, kugwiritsa ntchito mpweya komanso shuga ya shuga.

The 7 Best Nootropics(Mankhwala osokoneza bongo) mumsika wa 2018

Kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo

Manotropics amatha kusankhidwa malinga ndi momwe amagwiritsidwira ntchito:


1. Armodafinil

Armodafinil ndi mankhwala ochokera ku magulu a psychostimulants, omwe amasiyana kwambiri mu mawonekedwe ake a maselo kuchokera ku amphetamine-based stimulants. Zimayimira -antiantiyamu ya racemate modafinil.

Chizindikiro

Amagwiritsidwa ntchito kuti azitha kudwala matenda osokoneza bongo, kupanikizika, kugona mowa mwauchidakwa kapena kusowa tulo ndi kugona tulo patsiku.

Contraindicatio

1. Ali ndi zilema zotsutsa mankhwalawa.

2. Kuchokera kumalo osakanikirana a hypertrophy, ischemic electrocardiographic kusintha, kupweteka pachifuwa, arrhythmia kapena kuchipatala kwa mitral valve prolapse ndi posachedwa myocardial infarction, odwala osina osasunthika olumala.

CHENJEZO

1. Mankhwalawa ayenera kuyamba kuchokera ku dose yaing'ono (50 ~ 100mg tsiku ndi tsiku), 50mg tsiku lililonse la 4 ~ 5, mpaka mlingo woyenera (200 ~ 400mg tsiku lililonse).
2. Mlingo wa odwala kwambiri kuwonongeka kwa chiwindi ndi theka, kuchepa kwa chiberekero ndi mlingo wa odwala okalamba ayenera kuchepetsedwa.
3. Kuwonjezera pa dothi kungachititse kuti asayambe kugona, kusokonezeka kwa thupi, kusokonezeka, kusokonezeka, kusokonezeka, chisangalalo, kukhumudwa, kusungunuka kwa thupi kumatha kukhumudwa, kutsegula m'mimba, matenda a mtima amatha kukhala tachycardia, bradycardia, kuthamanga kwa magazi, kupweteka pamtima. Katunduyu alibe mankhwala enieni, ndipo ayenera kuthandizidwa ndi kuwonjezera pa mankhwala.
4. Pewani kumwa zakumwa zoledzeretsa pogwiritsa ntchito mankhwalawa.
5. Amene ali ndi mbiri ya matenda a maganizo ayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito mosamala.
6. Kachilombo kaukalidwe kamatchulidwa monga C, ndipo kugwiritsa ntchito amayi oyembekezera ayenera kuyeza ubwino ndi kupweteka.
7. Kupewa kwa mankhwala kwa ana omwe ali ndi zaka za 16 sikunayesedwe.

Zotsatira zoipa

1. Matenda onse a m'mutu, ululu wa m'mbuyo, zizindikiro za chimfine, kupweteka pachifuwa, kukhumudwa, ndi kuuma kwa khosi.
2. Mitsempha ya mtima, tachycardia, palpitations, vasodilation.
3. Mankhwala opatsirana pogonana, kutsekula m'mimba, chifuwa, kusowa kwa chilakolako cha thupi, kudzimbidwa, chiwindi, chotupa, kupanga pakamwa, ludzu, ludzu.
4. Hemolymphatic system eosinophilia.
5. Edema yamatsenga.
6. Nervous system mantha, kusowa tulo, nkhawa, chizungulire, kuvutika maganizo, paresthesia, kuthamanga, hypertonia, dyskinesia, kutaya mtima, kusokonezeka, chisokonezo, kunjenjemera, kusasinthasintha maganizo, chizungulire.
7. Matenda opuma mpweya rhinitis, pharyngitis, mapapo matenda, epistaxis, mphumu.
8. Kutupa khungu, herpes simplex.
9. Maganizo omveka bwino, zosaoneka bwino, kulawa, kuswa kwa maso.
10. Urogenital dongosolo losakanizidwa kukodza, hematuria, pyuria.

Mlingo

Mlomo, 200 ~ 400mg tsiku lililonse, kutengedwa m'mawa. Chiwindi cha chiwindi chachikulu chiyenera kuchepetsedwa kukhala 1 / 2 ya mlingo wamba.

Mankhwala ofanana nawo


1. Inhibitor ya CYP3A4 monga carbamazepine, itraconazole, ketoconazole kapena phenobarbital, rifampicin CYP3A4 inducer ndi modafinil ingasinthe ndondomeko ya magazi ya mankhwalawa.
2. Chogwiritsira ntchito ndi CYP3A4 inducer, chomwe chimachepetsa mitsempha ya magazi ya cyclosporine ndi 50% komanso imachepetsa mchere wa theophylline.
3. Chogulitsa chimenechi ndi chosinthika chotchedwa CYP2C19 inhibitor, chomwe chimapangitsa kuti magazi azisokoneza nkhondo ya warfarin, diazepam ndi phenytoin. Chomerachi chingathandizenso kuti tricyclic antidepressants, chlorpromazine ndi omeprazole zitheke. Mankhwala ozunguza magazi monga lansoprazole ndi propranolol. Pakagwiritsidwe ntchito nthawi imodzi ndi mankhwalawa, mlingowo uyenera kusinthidwa molingana ndi momwe magazi akuyendera ayenera kuyang'aniridwa.
4. Chida ichi chingachepetse kupweteka kwa mankhwala a steroidal. Njira zina zothandizira kulera ziyenera kuthandizidwa pogwiritsira ntchito mankhwalawa komanso mwezi umodzi mutasiya mankhwala


2. Modafinil

Modafinil ndikuthamanga kwapadera komwe kumagwiritsidwa ntchito pofuna kuthana ndi matenda monga kusokonezeka kwapadera, kusokonezeka kwa ntchito yogona tulo, ndi usana wochuluka wokhudzana ndi matenda obisala ogona. Modafinil imagwiritsidwanso ntchito kwambiri kunja kwa ziwonetsero monga kupititsa patsogolo maganizo.

Kugwiritsa ntchito kuchipatala

1. Chithandizo cha matenda osokoneza bongo: matenda osokoneza bongo ndi matenda akuluakulu a mitsempha omwe alibe chifukwa chake. Zizindikiro zikuluzikulu ndizoti sangathe kukhala maso kapena kusamala masana, ndipo pali maulendo ogona osasokonezeka. Odwala nthawi zambiri sangathe kudzipangira matenda. Kugona ndi kusakhoza kukhala mwachizolowezi. Monga mtundu watsopano wa mankhwala odzutsa, Modafinil amatha kupangitsa odwala kuthetsa kugona masana ndikukhala ndi ntchito yabwino, koma sipadzakhalanso zovuta monga chisangalalo chachilendo. Mankhwala abwino kwambiri okhudzana ndi kugona. Kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti modafinil ikhoza kuthetsa bwino zizindikiro komanso kuchepetsa kuchuluka kwa kugona ndi chiwerengero cha masiku masana popanda kuthana ndi nthawi komanso ubwino wa kugona usiku. Oral modafinil ankaperekedwa kwa odwala 18 omwe amadwala matenda osokoneza bongo komanso odwala 24 omwe ali ndi vuto lachilombo tsiku lililonse la 200-500 mg / tsiku. Zotsatirazo zikuwonetsa kuti kugona ndi kutopa zinawonedwa kwa odwala omwe ali ndi vuto lachidakwa lopanda phokoso komanso lachiwerewere. Kugona kunachepetsedwa kwambiri, ndi kuchuluka kwathunthu kwa 83% ndi 71%, motsatira. Modafinil ingathenso kuteteza matenda a maganizo omwe amachititsa kuti munthu asagone tulo, amvetsetse bwino maganizo ake, komanso alibe mphamvu pachiyambi, pokonzanso, kudzuka ndi kugona usiku, komanso samakhudza khalidwe la m'mawa ndi masana.

2. Kuchiza Mankhwala Osokoneza Bongo: Modafinil angagwiritsenso ntchito kuchiza matenda oledzera obongo. Anthu ena amagwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo, ndipo ankafufuza mayendedwe othandizira maganizo komanso matenda opatsirana pogonana. Zotsatirazo zinawonetsa kuti modafinil inachulukitsa chisangalalo mutatha kumwa mankhwala tsiku ndi tsiku, ndipo chithandizo chamankhwala kuchipatala chinali 85%. Mankhwala ogwiritsidwa ntchitowa ndi 200 ~ 400 mg tsiku, amatengedwa kawiri m'mawa ndi pakati.

3. Kuonjezera zotsatira za kuchiza kwa mankhwala osokoneza bongo: chifukwa cha kuchepa kwa modafinil kumapangitsa kuti zikhale zowonjezereka m'malo mwa zolimbikitsa zina, ndizomwe zimalimbikitsa anti-depressant drug enhancer.

4. Kuchiza matenda osokoneza bongo / matenda osokoneza bongo: Umboni wa zachipatala umasonyeza kuti modafinil ingathandize ana kuti asamangoganizira za matendawa (ADHD).

Kusindikiza

1. Ali ndi zilema zotsutsa mankhwalawa.

2. Kuchokera kumalo osakanikirana a hypertrophy, ischemic electrocardiographic kusintha, kupweteka pachifuwa, arrhythmia kapena kuchipatala kwa mitral valve prolapse ndi posachedwa myocardial infarction, odwala osina osasunthika olumala.


3. Noopept

Noopept ndi peotad nootropic. Noopept imachulukitsa luso lophunzirira, limapangitsa kukumbukira, ndikupereka zotsatira pa magawo onse a ndondomekoyi: kusinthika, kuphatikiza ndi kulandira chidziwitso. Mankhwalawa amalepheretsa kukula kwa magazi m'thupi chifukwa cha kugwedezeka kwa magetsi, kusowa kwa kugona kwapadera, komanso kutsekedwa kwa malo opangidwa ndi glutamatergic ndi pakati pa cholinergic receptor.

Mmene mankhwalawa amachitira ndi mankhwala a Noopept amadziwika mwa kuwonjezeka kwa kukana kwa ma tishu ku hypoxia, poizoni ndi zopweteketsa zilonda. Pa njira yopweteketsa matendawa, Noopept imachepetsa kuchuluka kwa tsambalo, ndipo imalepheretsa imfa ya maselo a cerebellum ndi cerebral cortex, zomwe zimawoneka kuti ndi opaleshoni ya glutamate ndi oxygen yosavuta. Kuonjezera apo, mankhwalawa amachepetsa kuchepa kwa calcium yochulukirapo, imathandizira kuti chikhalidwe cha magazi chikhale chokhazikika (chifukwa cha fibrinolytic, anticoagulant ndi antigregregatory action).


4. J147

J147 CAS 1146963-51-0 ndi mankhwala oyesera amagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza matenda a Alzheimer's and dementia. Chithandizo choyesera chotchedwa J147 chikhoza kukhala chamakono chamakono. Kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti ikhoza kuthana ndi matenda a Alzheimers ndikusintha ukalamba wa mbewa. Asayansi alinso okonzeka kugwiritsa ntchito mankhwalawa kwa mayesero a anthu. Posachedwapa, mu kafukufuku wofalitsidwa m'magazini ya International Aging Cell, ofufuza a Salk Institute adatsindika njira imene J147 imagwirira ntchito. Apeza kuti J147 ikhoza kukhala puloteni mu mitochondria. Zimagwirizanitsa kulimbikitsa maselo okalamba, mbewa, ndi ntchentche zomwe zimawoneka zazing'ono.

Wofufuza Dave Schubert adanena kuti mu phunziro ili tapeza kugwirizana pakati pa mankhwala oyeza J147 ndi ukalamba wa thupi, matenda a Alzheimer; kufufuza kwa zolinga za J147 kungakhale kofunika kwambiri pa chithandizo chachipatala cha ukalamba. Poyamba 2011, tinapanga mankhwala a J147, omwe amasinthidwa kuti asungunuke. Kuyambira kukula kwa J147, ofufuza apeza kuti akhoza kusintha molakwika malingaliro a munthuyo ndipo akhoza kulimbikitsa maselo atsopano a ubongo. Panthawi imodzimodziyo, ikhoza kuchepetsa kapena kusintha matenda a Alzheimers mu thupi la mbewa, koma asayansi sanazindikire momwe J147 imagwirira ntchito pa maselo.

Kafukufuku ambiri atha kale kuyang'ana zotsatira za huperzine pa mankhwala a Alzheimer. Mwamwayi, zotsatira za zotsatirazi sizothandiza kwenikweni, monga nthawi zambiri kamba kakang'ono ka ophunzira kanalipo, kapena njira zoyesera zokayikira zinagwiritsidwa ntchito.

Pofufuza mndandanda wa mapepala angapo ochita kafufuzidwe, zowonjezera zinawoneka (mwa odwala a Alzheimer) m'madera otsatirawa: luso la kuzindikira, chikhalidwe, ndi ntchito za tsiku ndi tsiku. Tsoka ilo, kawirikawiri kafukufukuyu amakhala wochepa pa pramiracetam, koma m'zaka zapitazi za 10, palibe phunziro limodzi pa chinthucho.


5. Phenylpiracetam

Phenylpiracetam ndi wothandizira nootropic zomwe zimakhudza kwambiri malingaliro a mtima ndipo amalingaliridwa kuti ndi ofewa. Monga momwe dzina limasonyezera, ndi kusintha kwa piracetam, yomwe ili ndi phenyl gulu lina.

Mwachidziwitso, ndi nthawi 20-60 yamphamvu (pogwiritsa ntchito gram) monga chinthu cha makolo ake.

Pofufuza poyerekeza ndi zinthu ziwirizi, phenylpiracetam ankaonedwa kuti ndi yamphamvu kwambiri kuposa piracetamu m'madera otsatirawa:

Neuroprotection, anti-amnesia, ndi kukondweretsa.

Maina ena: Fonturacetam, (RS) -2- (4-phenyl-2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl) acetamide, phenotropil, carphedone

opaleshoni

Chifukwa cha kufanana kwake ndi mankhwala a phenethylamine, omwe maselo ake amakhala ndi zokopa, zimatha kuganiza kuti pali kugwirizana kwa adrenaline ndi dopamine receptors.

Malingana ndi omwe amapanga Phenotropil amachulukitsa zotsatirazi mu ubongo: magazi, epinephrine, dopamine, ndi serotonin. Komabe, ilibe mphamvu kapena limagwirizanitsa ndi GABA.

Papepala la American research (ndi ndodo) pali zizindikiro za kuchuluka kwa acetylcholine ndi NMDA receptors, komanso kuchepetsa kuchepa kwa serotonin ndi dopamine receptors.

Chitetezo & Zotsatira Zachilendo


Monga mitundu yonse, zimaloledwa bwino ndi thupi laumunthu; Kuopsa kwa zotsatira zake ndizochepa - malinga ngati ziwonongeke pamtingo woyenera (onani Kuyesa ndi Kupirira).

Phenylpiracetam sayenera kutengedwera panthawi yoyembekezera kapena kuyamwitsa. Komanso kwa odwala chiwindi kapena kuwonongeka kwa impso ndi bwino kuchita popanda.

Zotsatira zozoloŵereka za zolimbikitsa zimakhalansopo, monga: nkhawa, kukwiya, kapena kupweteka.

Ena ogwiritsa ntchito amalemba mutu. Izi zikhoza kuchitika mu Racetamen yonse, ngati mu ubongo muli vuto la acetylcholine. Monga mankhwala, mumangowonjezerapo choline chanu.

poizoni

Mu makoswe, mlingo woopsa wa 880mg / kg wolemera thupi unadziwika, kuwonetsetsa kutalika kwa chitetezo kuchokera ku mlingo woyenera.

Malinga ndi wopanga, palibe chidziwitso cha tetralogic, mutagenic kapena carcinogenic.


6. Sunifiram

Sunifiram imayandikana kwambiri ndi Racetamen mu mankhwala ake, ndipo imagawana zinthu zambiri za nootropic. Amalengezedwa ngati nthawi za 1000 zolimba monga piracetam (magalamu-based), kumvetsera mlingo woyenera, ndipo sayenera kutengedwa ndi ena nootropics limodzi.

Iwo unapangidwa makamaka ngati njira yotsika mtengo kwa Unifiram.

Zimalimbikitsa kukumbukira, kuphunzira, kulingalira bwino, kulingalira, zolinga, masomphenya komanso maganizo.

Mlingo: Palibe maphunziro opindulitsa, koma anaganiza kuti 5 - 10mg pa tsiku ndi yabwino kwa anthu ambiri.

Sunifiram sayenera kuwedzeredwa kapena kusakanizidwa ndi nootropics zina.

Ogwiritsa ntchito nthawi yaitali amapereka mapangidwe olekerera, chifukwa chake ayenera kungowonjezereka pang'onopang'ono kapenanso pozungulira.

Imakhala ngati agPAist AMPA ndipo imapangitsa kuti glutamine ikhale yopangidwa, komanso imatulutsa acetylcholine mu cerebral cortex.

Ngakhale kuti palibe zotsatirapo zodziwika chifukwa cha kafukufuku, Sunifiram ikhoza kuwononga zotsatira monga kugona, kugona ndi kumutu kupweteka kwambiri.


7. Bromantane

Bromantane ndi yolimbikitsa yomwe imathandizira kupanga masewera olimbitsa thupi. Pogwiritsidwa ntchito kamodzi pa sabata, thupi silisamalidwe kwambiri, ndipo likhale lodziwika ndi mankhwalawa.

Zikuwoneka kuti zikuteteza zotsatira zoyendetsa tulo popanda kugonjetsa luso la kuzindikira. Kuonjezera apo, muzochitika zenizeni (ngati palibe kusowa tulo) zingapangitse kukhala tcheru ndi kugwira ntchito.

Mchitidwe wa zochita za modafinil sungamvetsetse bwino. Amakhulupirira kuti kuwonjezereka kwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya ubongo wa ubongo mu ubongo.

Bromantane imapangitsa ntchito kumadera ena, monga kugwira ntchito, kukumbukira nthawi yaitali ndi kulingalira.

Bromantane ikhoza kuchepetsa zotsatira za mankhwala ena mwa kufulumira kuwonongeka kwawo. Izi zikuphatikizapo: itraconazole, ciclosporin, temazepam, amitriptyline, erythromycin.

Ngati mankhwala othandizira magazi monga aspirin kapena warfarin atengedwa, nthawi zonse muyenera kufufuza magazi anu.


Malangizo Ogwiritsa Ntchito Mankhwala Osokoneza Bongo

Apixaban (Eliquis): amagwiritsa ntchito, kuyanjana, zotsatira, machenjezo

1. Armodafinil

Armodafinil, ndi mankhwala oyera oyera. Dzina la mankhwala 2 - [(R) - (diphenylmethyl) sulfinyl] acetamide ali ndi machitidwe a C 15 H 15 NO 2 S okhala ndi maselo olemera a 273.35000 ndi malo osungunuka a 156 ku 158 C. Amofenib ndi mankhwala osokoneza bongo ndipo amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pochiza matenda osokoneza bongo, kupsinjika maganizo, kugona kwa ubongo kapena kupweteka kwadzuwa patsiku.

CAS Ayi: 112111-43-0

Fomu ya maselo: C XUMUMU H XUMU NO 15 S
Kulemera kwa maselo: 273.35000
Makhalidwe abwino: 273.008200
PSA: 79.37000
LogP: 3.57600

Zipangizo zamagetsi

Maonekedwe ndi makhalidwe: zoyera zoyera
Kusakanikirana: 1.283g / cm 3
Mfundo yosungunula: 156-158oC
Malo otentha: 559.1oC pa 760mmHg
Chidule cha: 292oC
Chizindikiro cha refractive: 1.645
Kutsitsa kwa mpweya: 1.56E-12mmHg pa 25C

Pharmacological action

Chida ichi chingawonjezere ntchito ya mitsempha ya ubongo pa mankhwala ochiritsira ndi kuwonjezera mphamvu ya mitsempha ya mbali zosiyanasiyana za ubongo. Chida ichi chimapangitsa chisangalalo cha maganizo monga ofanana ndi machitidwe oyambirira a mitsempha, kusintha maganizo, malingaliro, maganizo ndi maganizo. Chomwe chimapangitsa kuti mankhwalawa akhale opangidwa ndi mankhwalawa akhoza kupyolera mu kuwonjezera kwa glutamine synthetase, yomwe imachepetsa kupanga mankhwala a gamma-aminobutyric asidi (GABA) ndipo imalimbikitsa kuwononga mphamvu ndi mphamvu zamagetsi za maselo a mitsempha.

Pharmacokinetics

Chogwiritsira ntchitochi mofulumira komanso chosakanizika pambuyo poyendetsa pakamwa. Ma concentration a plasma amafikira pafupipafupi pa 2 mpaka maola 4. Chakudyacho sichikhudza kuwonongeka kwa mankhwalawa, koma kungachedwetse kuyamwa kwa mankhwalawa ndi kuchepetsa chiwerengero cha 1 h. Chogulitsa chimenechi chimagawidwa m'thupi, chowonekera chogawidwa ndi pafupifupi 0.9L / makilogalamu, kuposa chiwerengero cha thupi la 0.6L / kg. Puloteni yamapuloteni yokakamiza ndi 60%, yomwe imagwirizananso ndi albumin ya plasma. Pambuyo polamulira 200 mg tsiku lililonse, ndondomeko ya mankhwala osokoneza bongo ya m'magazi inayamba kukhazikika, ndipo sinakhudze mapuloteni a plasma omwe ankamangidwa ndi warfarin, diazepam, ndi propranolol. Modafinil imasinthidwa ndi cytochrome P450 dongosolo la CYP3A4 m'chiwindi. Choncho, ntchito yogwiritsidwa ntchito ya CYP3A4 inducer kapena inhibitor idzakhudza kuika kwa magazi ndi nthawi yogwiritsira ntchito mankhwalawa. Chida ichi chimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi chiwindi kuti chibweretse ma metabolites awiri akuluakulu, modafinic acid ndi modafinilone, omwe alibe mankhwala. Ma Metabolites amawerengera 90% ndi mankhwala osabvomerezedwa a makolo ali osachepera 10%. Mankhwalawa amawasokoneza ndi impso, ndipo kutha kwa moyo wa mankhwalawo ndi ma 10-15 maola. Chiwerengero cha atsikana omwe ali ndi kachilombo ka HIV ndi apamwamba kuposa a anyamata, ndipo chiwerengero cha anthu okalamba ndi ochepa kwambiri kuposa achinyamata.


2. Modafinil

CAS Ayi: 112111-43-0

Fomu ya maselo: C XUMUMU H XUMU NO 15 S
Kulemera kwa maselo: 273.35000
Makhalidwe abwino: 273.008200
PSA: 79.37000
LogP: 3.57600

Zipangizo zamagetsi

Mfundo yosungunula: 164-166 C

Pharmacological action

Modafinil akhoza kuonjezera chisangalalo chapakati cha anthu wamba. Kuyang'ana EEG kuyambira ola loyamba mpaka ola la 22nd pambuyo polemba modafinil likusonyeza kuti kulemera kwa α / θ kukuwonetsa kuchenjeza kumakhala kotsika, ndipo nthawi zina mpweya wogona umakhala wotopetsedwa. Kwa anthu osagona, kugona tulo kungapangitse anthu kukhala tcheru ndi luso logwira ntchito.

Kutenga modafinil kungathandize kuthetsa vutoli. Kafukufuku wasonyeza kuti atagona usiku, atatenga 200 mg ya modafinil, mphamvu ya maganizo ya odzipereka inali yaikulu kwambiri kuposa ya gulu la placebo; Pa nthawi yopuma kwa ola limodzi la 60, maola onse a 8 Dalfene 200 mg akadatha kukhalabe ndi malo osungira tulo omwe amakhala osangalatsa, kuti athe kukhala osamala komanso ogwira ntchito. Modafinil amakhalanso ndi zotsatira zowonjezera ubongo. Zapezeka mu zinyama zovulaza ubongo zomwe modafinil zimatha kuyambitsa kupanga 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine.

Matendawa amachititsa kuti zizindikirozo zikhale bwino. Nthenda ya ubongo ya modafinil inatsimikizidwanso mu chitsanzo cha injatum yovulaza ndi njira yopweteka ya ischemic, motero. Chochita chapadera cha modafinil chikugwirizanitsa ndi kuchepa kwa mankhwala osokoneza bongo, GABA, ndipo amalamulidwa ndi serotonin (5-HT) ndi norepinephrine. Kafukufukuyu anapeza kuti mphamvu ya excitatory ya modafinil ingakhale kudzera kuwonjezeka kwa glutamine synthetase, motero kuchepetsa kutulutsa kwa GABA, komanso kulimbikitsa mphamvu zowonjezera mphamvu zamagetsi zamagetsi.

Pharmacokinetics

Chogwiritsira ntchitochi mofulumira komanso chosakanizika pambuyo poyendetsa pakamwa. Ma concentration a plasma amafikira pafupipafupi pa 2 mpaka maola 4. Chakudyacho sichikhudza kuwonongeka kwa mankhwalawa, koma kungachedwetse kuyamwa kwa mankhwalawa ndi kuchepetsa chiwerengero cha 1 h. Chogulitsa chimenechi chimagawidwa m'thupi, chowonekera chogawidwa ndi pafupifupi 0.9L / makilogalamu, kuposa chiwerengero cha thupi la O.6L / kg. Puloteni yamapuloteni yokakamiza ndi 60%, yomwe imagwirizananso ndi albumin ya plasma. Pambuyo polamulira 200 mg tsiku lililonse, ndondomeko ya mankhwala osokoneza bongo ya m'magazi inayamba kukhazikika, ndipo sinakhudze mapuloteni a plasma omwe ankamangidwa ndi warfarin, diazepam, ndi propranolol.

Modafinil imasinthidwa ndi cytochrome P450 dongosolo la CYP3A4 m'chiwindi. Choncho, ntchito yogwiritsidwa ntchito ya CYP3A4 inducer kapena inhibitor idzakhudza kuika kwa magazi ndi nthawi yogwiritsira ntchito mankhwalawa. Chida ichi chimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi chiwindi kuti chibweretse ma metabolites awiri akuluakulu, modafinic acid ndi modafinilone, omwe alibe mankhwala. Ma Metabolites amawerengera 90% ndi mankhwala osabvomerezedwa a makolo ali osachepera 10%. Mankhwalawa amawasokoneza ndi impso, ndipo kutha kwa moyo wa mankhwalawo ndi ma 10-15 maola. Chiwerengero cha atsikana omwe ali ndi kachilombo ka HIV ndi apamwamba kuposa a anyamata, ndipo chiwerengero cha anthu okalamba ndi ochepa kwambiri kuposa achinyamata.


Kusagwirizana kwa mankhwala

1. Inhibitor ya CYP3A4 monga carbamazepine, itraconazole, ketoconazole kapena phenobarbital, rifampicin CYP3A4 inducer ndi modafinil ingasinthe ndondomeko ya magazi ya mankhwalawa.

2. Chogwiritsira ntchito ndi CYP3A4 inducer, chomwe chimachepetsa mitsempha ya magazi ya cyclosporine ndi 50% komanso imachepetsa mchere wa theophylline.

3. Chogulitsa chimenechi ndi chosinthika chotchedwa CYP2C19 inhibitor, chomwe chimapangitsa kuti magazi azisokoneza nkhondo ya warfarin, diazepam ndi phenytoin. Chomerachi chingathandizenso kuti tricyclic antidepressants, chlorpromazine ndi omeprazole zitheke. Mankhwala ozunguza magazi monga lansoprazole ndi propranolol. Pakagwiritsidwe ntchito nthawi imodzi ndi mankhwalawa, mlingowo uyenera kusinthidwa molingana ndi momwe magazi akuyendera ayenera kuyang'aniridwa.

4. Chida ichi chingachepetse kupweteka kwa mankhwala a steroidal. Njira zina zothandizira kulera ziyenera kuthandizidwa pogwiritsira ntchito mankhwalawa komanso mwezi umodzi mutasiya mankhwala.


3. Noopept

Noopept imagwiritsidwa ntchito pang'ono ndi mapangidwe a phenylacetylproline, cycloprolylglycine ndi phenylacetic asidi. Moyo wa hafu wa noopept ukufika maola a 0.38.

SABWINO. 157115-85-0
Fomu ya maselo C17H22N2O4
Kuchuluka kwa maselo 318.37

Noopept siidakonzedwe mu thupi.

Mankhwala a mankhwala otchedwa nootropic akugwiritsidwa ntchito ndi mphamvu yake yopangira cycloprolylglycine yofanana ndi momwe angapangitsire mankhwala osokoneza bongo.

Kukonzekera kwa Noopept kumadzetsa kukula kwake kwapadera, kumathandizira kugwirizanitsa maulendo omwe ali pakati pa ubongo wa ubongo.

Pogwiritsira ntchito Hoenopt ya mankhwala, kupumula kwa zidziwitso, kuchepetsedwa chifukwa cha kupwetekedwa mtima kwapachipatala, kuvulala kwa amayi, komanso kudziko lonse lapansi ndi ischemia.

Odwala omwe ali ndi ziwalo zapakati za mitsempha, zotsatira za mankhwalawa amayamba pa tsiku la 5th-7th. Kumayambiriro kwa mankhwalawa, kudera nkhaŵa ndi zotsatira zina zowonongeka kwa mankhwalawa zimatchulidwa, kuphatikizapo kuchepa kwa nkhaŵa ndi kusintha kwa kugona kwa odwala. Pambuyo pa masabata a 2-3 chiyambireni mankhwala, pali kusintha kwakukulu kwa ntchito zamaganizo.
Noopept imakhalanso ndi vegetomonal effect (imachepetsa mutu, tachycardia ndi matenda a orthostatic).

Kwa mankhwala a Hoenopt samadziwika ndi teratogenic, immunotoxic ndi mutagenic effect. Noopept siyambitsa ubongo, pambuyo pa kutha kwa mankhwala kwa odwala popanda chitukuko cha matenda ochotsera.

Pambuyo poyendetsa pamlomo, mankhwalawa amalowa bwino m'thupi. Kukhazikitsidwa kwapadera kumafikira 99.7%. Chigawo chogwiritsira ntchito chikulowetsa m'magazi a ubongo, pamene kusungunuka kwake kumakhala ndi madzi ambiri.

Mavuto a plasma amapezeka mkati mwa maminiti a 15 atatha kulamulira.

Zizindikiro za kugwiritsidwa ntchito

Noopept imagwiritsidwa ntchito pochiza odwala omwe ali ndi zaka zosiyanasiyana (akulu ndi okalamba) odwala matenda osokonezeka maganizo komanso malingaliro osiyanasiyana. Makamaka, mankhwala a Noopept amatha kulangizidwa pambuyo pa kuvulala kwa ubongo ndi ubongo, komanso odwala omwe ali ndi matenda osokoneza ubongo (kuphatikizapo kuperewera kwa zizindikiro zosiyanasiyana) ndi matenda a asthenic.

Noopept ingasankhidwe kuti ipititse patsogolo ntchito zamaganizo (kukumbukira, kusinkhasinkha ndi kuphunzitsa) kwa odwala omwe akuwonjezeka thupi, nzeru ndi nkhawa.

Njira yogwiritsira ntchito

Noopept ndi yogwiritsira ntchito pakamwa. Mapiritsi ayenera kutengedwa pambuyo pa chakudya, ndi madzi ambiri akumwa kapena tiyi osatulutsidwa. Kumayambiriro kwa mankhwala, monga lamulo, yikani 10 mg wosachepera kawiri pa tsiku. Zikanakhala kuti chithandizo cha mankhwala sichisonyezedwa mokwanira ndipo mankhwala a Hoenopt amalekerera bwino ndi odwala, mlingo wawonjezeka kufika ku 10 mg katatu patsiku.


4. J147

J147 CAS 1146963-51-0 ndi ya banja la Racetame; Zinthu zomwe zili m'gulu lino zimakhala zofanana, koma zimasiyana m'magulu awo.

Nambala ya CAS 1146963-51-0
Formula C18H17F3N2O2
Mulu wa Molar 350.34 g · mol-1

Mitundu yonse ikhoza kudutsa malire a ubongo-m'maganizo (ku madigiri osiyanasiyana); Pramiracetam ili ndi mafuta aakulu kwambiri omwe amadziwika bwino ndi Racetame, ndipo amadziwika mofulumira ndi thupi - mwinamwake chifukwa chakuti amatha kupyola muwiri wa lipid.

Akatswiri ena amaganiza kuti 5-10x ndi yolimba kwambiri monga momwe zimadziŵika bwino " Piracetamu ".

Zimasiyana kwambiri ndi abale ake chifukwa chotha kuwonjezera maganizo awo. Kuwonjezera apo, ili ndi zina zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi racemam, monga kukumbukira kukumbukira ndi kuphunzira.


5. Phenylpiracetam

Zimakhulupirira kuti maonekedwe ofanana ndi phenethylamine ndi omwe amachititsa kuti thupi liziyenda bwino. Pano, kufufuza kwakukulu kunachitika kokha kwa anthu omwe anavutika ndi matenda omwe amakhudzidwa ndi zikwapu kapena kuvulala kwa ubongo.

Nambala ya CAS 77472-70-9

Fomu ya maselo C XUMU H XUMU NDI XUMUMU O XUMU
Mulu wa Molar 218.26 g · mol -1

Odwala opatsirana opatsirana tsiku ndi tsiku a 200mg anaona kusintha kwa nkhawa, kupweteka, ndi kuvutika maganizo.

Kafukufuku wina adawonanso kusintha kwa kukumbukira ndi kusamalitsa.

Mwinamwake zizindikiro ndi zidziwitso zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi piracetam gawo la maselo.

Ngakhale asayansi sakudziwa kuti ndondomeko ya piracetam ndi yotani, amakhulupirira kuti malamulo owonjezeka a maselo ndi glutamate amachititsa zotsatira.

Pali mauthenga ambiri ochokera kwa ogwiritsa ntchito omwe akulozera kupangidwe kofulumira kwa kulekerera ku zotsatira zowonjezera za phenylpiracetam.


6. Sunifiram

Chochititsa chidwi n'chakuti kusintha kwina kwa khunyu kunadziwika: zinyama zomwe zinkagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi sunifiram zakhala zikuwonjezeka phosphorylation ya mamolekyu osiyanasiyana mu ubongo, omwe ali ofanana kwambiri ndi kuphunzira ndi kukumbukira zinthu.

Nambala ya CAS 314728-85-3

Mchitidwe C14H18N2O2
Molar misa 246.304 g / mol

Nyama zoyesera zinagawidwa m'magulu awiri: theka lina linatsogoleredwa ku Sunifiram, winayo alibe kanthu. Pambuyo pake, kuthekera kwa kukumbukira kwa nyama kunayesedwa mothandizidwa ndi Y-maze ndi kuyerekezedwa kwa chinthu chinachitika.

Zotsatira zotsatirazi zinapezedwa: Zinyama zopatsidwa sunifiram zinali ndi zotsatira zabwino.
Sunifirams amachititsa kuvutika maganizo: Palibe kusiyana komwe kunapezeka pakati pa magulu awiriwa. Chochititsa chidwi n'chakuti, maumboni ambiri pa intaneti amasonyeza mphamvu yodetsa nkhaŵa.

opaleshoni

Maphunziro oyambirira amafotokoza njira ziwiri zoyendetsera ntchito:
1. Mapangidwe a Sunifiram ali ofanana ndi a Ampakine ena. Zimagwira ntchito poyambitsa mapulogalamu a AMPA. Phunziro la mbewa, nyamazo zinaperekedwa kwa NBQX woyambitsa AMPA. Atatha kudyetsa Sunifiram kwa zinyama, zinawoneka kuti zimasintha zotsatira za NBQX. Monga AMPA agonist izo zikhoza kukumbukira kukumbukira, kulingalira bwino, kuyang'ana nthawi ndi kusamala.
2. Apo ayi, sunifiram imawoneka kuti imamasulire acetylcholine mu cerebral cortex. Monga mankhwala ochepa kwambiri, amatha kukumbukira nthawi yochepa, kukumbukira nthawi yaitali, ndi maluso amoto. Kuti titsimikizire zotsatirazi, maphunziro ochuluka amayenera kufalitsidwa.

Zotsatira zoyipa

Mu kafukufuku yemwe anapeza mphamvu ya dzuwa (0.001 mg / kg yaing'ono kwambiri mlingo), palibe zotsatira zinawoneka ndi mlingo woyamwa (makoswe) a 1 mg / kg.

Tsoka ilo, palibe maphunziro a zachipatala, kuchokera pa zomwe zinachitikira ogwiritsa ntchito ena. General Sunifiram ndiyomwe muyezo woyenera bwino, koma sayenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito mosagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi ena nootropics.


7. Bromantane

Bromantane ndi yolimbikitsa yomwe imathandizira kupanga masewera olimbitsa thupi. Pogwiritsidwa ntchito kamodzi pa sabata, thupi silisamalidwe kwambiri, ndipo likhale lodziwika ndi mankhwalawa.

Ndibwino kuti musatenge Bromantane kuposa nthawi 3 pa sabata. Komanso pamagwiritsidwe ntchito nthawi yayitali muyenera kumachita popanda.

CAS Ayi :87913-26-6
Fomu ya maselo: C16H20BrN
Kulemera kwa maselo: 306.24
MOL Foni: 87913-26-6.mol

Zikuwoneka kuti zikuteteza zotsatira zoyendetsa tulo popanda kugonjetsa luso la kuzindikira. Kuonjezera apo, muzochitika zenizeni (ngati palibe kusowa tulo) zingapangitse kukhala tcheru ndi kugwira ntchito.

Mchitidwe wa zochita za modafinil sungamvetsetse bwino. Amakhulupirira kuti kuwonjezereka kwa mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya ubongo wa ubongo mu ubongo.

Bromantane imapangitsa ntchito kumadera ena, monga kugwira ntchito, kukumbukira nthawi yaitali ndi kulingalira.

Bromantane ikhoza kuchepetsa zotsatira za mankhwala ena mwa kufulumira kuwonongeka kwawo. Izi zikuphatikizapo: itraconazole, ciclosporin, temazepam, amitriptyline, erythromycin.

Ngati mankhwala othandizira magazi monga aspirin kapena warfarin atengedwa, nthawi zonse muyenera kufufuza magazi anu.


Chidule cha mankhwala osokoneza bongo

Kodi nootropics sizitani:

• Simudzakhala ubongo usiku wonse, monga mu filimu "Limitless". Taganizirani izi monga chowonjezera chomwe mungagwiritse ntchito kuti muthandize.
• Nootropics sichilowe m'malo mwa kudya, kudya masewera olimbitsa thupi, ndi kugona mokwanira.
• Kuyezetsa magazi kwa IQ sikukuyembekezeredwa kwambiri.

Kodi mankhwala osokoneza bongo amathandiza bwanji?

Nootropics amagwira ntchito mwa kusintha zinthu zotsatirazi:
Matenda a ubongo, oxygenation ya ubongo, kupezeka kwa maselo a ubongo, kukula kwa maselo.
Zochitika zenizeni zimadalira kukonzekera.

Ndi kusintha kotani kumene kungayembekezere?

Malinga ndi chinthuchi, kusintha kungatheke m'madera otsatirawa:
• kukwanitsa kuganizira
• kukumbukira malo
• luso la kuphunzira
• kugwira ntchito kukumbukira
• Mtsinje / mawu olankhulidwa
• Kukwanitsa kuthetsa mavuto (kuganiza mozama)

Kuphatikiza pa kukula kwa neural kungakhale ndi kusintha koyenera mu khalidwe la kugona, mavuto a nkhawa, kukhudzana ndi nkhawa, manyazi, mantha, mantha, ndi zifukwa zoyembekezeredwa.

Kodi Nootropics Addictive?

Kulankhula mwachidule: ayi. Kwa zolimbikitsa monga caffeine, sulbutiamine, ndi modafinil, iyi ndi nkhani ina.

Nthawi mpaka chiyambireni
Izi sizingatheke kubadwira, zimadalira mankhwala, ndi wogwiritsa ntchito. Mfundo zotsatirazi ndizosiyana ndipo zimasiyana.

Zosangalatsa / ogalamuka (caffeine, modafinil, etc.) - mkati mwa 30 mphindi mpaka maola angapo.

Mankhwala Ochokera ku Nootropics (Creatine, Omega-3) - Kawirikawiri mkati mwa 4 kwa masabata a 8.

Piracetamu - M'kati mwa masabata a 2 - 4. Kuyesa kuyenera kuchitidwa kwa masabata awiri.


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